Unlike the classic fabric, made up of two elements (warp and weft) that intertwine between them, in the knitted fabric there is only one element that works on itself, that is, imagining each rank with the previous and next. Knitted fabrics can be in weft or chain.
The knitted fabrics in the weft
Weft knit fabric is defined as a structure consisting of a single element, the weave, arranged
horizontally with curvilinear evolution. The weaving is done for
by means of needles, with the formation of the meshes one after the other in horizontal succession and with the union
of them. The resulting fabric is extremely extensible in both directions.
The constituent element of these fabrics is the shirt which is made up of three fundamental parts
(see figure 1):
1. needle head or bushing (fig. 1, point a);
2. rods (fig. 1, b);
3. sinker bushings (fig. 1, c), which joined together constitute
The horizontal sequence of links is defined as rank. Yes
defines the vertical sequence of meshes corresponding in a row
at the work of a single needle.
The classification of machinery
The first distinction that needs to be made is that between frames and machines. In the frames needles, which can
be both beak and tongue, they are all mounted on a bar that can be fixed or mobile, but
in both cases the needles all perform the same work simultaneously. In the machines, however,
the needles, which are only of the automatic type (with tongue), are mounted on the needle beds in special ones
grooves and are moved individually; therefore the various needles complete the cycle of stitching in
sequence one after the other. Both the machines and the frames can be built both in rectilinear form
than circular. Finally, they can be single-faced (with a single series of needles) and double-faced
(with two sets of opposing needles).
Classification of woven knitted fabrics
The main types of woven knitted fabrics are:
1. basic fabrics, when the machine does not need any selective needle control;
2. derivative tissues, when the need to control needles with a limited variety is sufficient;
3. textured fabrics, when each needle is controlled individually and therefore a design is possible
wide field for weaving and color;
4. compound fabrics, when additional elements are added such as, for example, terry,
The drawing effects that can be achieved on each of these four classes are:
to. intertwining effect (variation of the mesh formation method);
b. color effect (creation of designs, using different colors and types of mesh);
c. padding effect (obtained by inserting additional threads and textures).
The classification of machinery
The basic classification of the weaves that can be produced on rectilinear frames or machines
circulars, is as follows:
to. plain knitted fabrics, obtained with a series of needles;
b. rib knit fabrics (double jersey), obtained with two sets of needles that cross and,
therefore, staggered with each other;
c. interlocked knitted fabrics, obtained with two series of needles facing each other but which
they work with alternating needles;
d. inverted knitted fabrics (links - links), obtained with a single series of double hook needles which
they work on two needle beds.
Chain knitted fabrics
In the chain knitted fabric a series of warp threads form the stitches simultaneously.
The difference between the mesh and the chain link consists in the fact that in the chain link,
since each needle is powered by its own thread, the intermaglia is not arranged horizontally
but it is placed vertically or diagonally forming a bridle.
The primary weave that is obtained by making each needle work with its own thread is called a chain;
of course in this case you don't get a fabric but a fringe. To transform that
fabric fringe it is necessary to tie the chains together with a variable movement by a needle
Chain knitting looms have a very high production capacity and have a high level
versatility, being able to produce elastic fabrics such as knitted fabrics, compact or perforated
like tulle or nets, smooth or textured.
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